According to the Census, they totaled 91,, people and made up The main ancestry of current white Brazilians is Portuguese. Furthermore, even after independence, the Portuguese were among the nationalities that mostly immigrated to Brazil. The white Brazilian population is spread throughout Brazil's territory, but its highest percentage is found in the three southernmost states, where
Holocene biomass burning and global dynamics of the carbon cycle
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Many of the indigenous people were either killed or died of diseases to which they had no immunity, after which the Spanish then brought large numbers of African slaves to Jamaica as labourers. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with a plantation economy dependent on the African slaves and later their descendants. The British fully emancipated all slaves in , and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the s, the British began using Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August
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Soil is a mixture of organic matter , minerals , gases , liquids , and organisms that together support life. Earth 's body of soil, called the pedosphere , has four important functions :. Soil is also commonly referred to as earth or dirt ; some scientific definitions distinguish dirt from soil by restricting the former term specifically to displaced soil. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere.